Power Quality Management
Power quality is process of powering and grounding a piece of equipment in a manner for its satisfactory operation .Voltage and current quality decides overall power quality .Wiring and grounding of sensitive Electronic Equipments in addition to voltage quality parameters governs operational, efficiency and life performance of equipments .
Power Quality Management Services
Power quality is process of powering and grounding a piece of equipment in a manner for its satisfactory operation .Voltage and current quality decides overall power quality .Wiring and grounding of sensitive Electronic Equipments in addition to voltage quality parameters governs operational, efficiency and life performance of equipments .Immunity of equipment is decided by Voltage quality parameters .Emission is current quality contribution by equipment operation .Compatibility of sensitive Equipments with Voltage variation is key for reliable , efficient operation .Small power quality abnormality leads to malfunction /failure of equipments leading to process disruption resulting into huge Financial loss .Compliance to National and international standard to limit emissions within recommended limit is statutory requirement .Power quality is a highly specialized area and domain expert only can provide cost effective power quality solutions to solve immunity and emission problems.
Power quality services
Power Quality Audit
We offer exhaustive , objective specific power quality audit services .Our domain experts are well known researcher with Ph D qualification with power quality specialization with more than 25 Years extensive power quality consultation and research background .We offer power quality services to clients from all sectors by using high end triggered as well as non triggered Power quality analyzer. During power quality audit equipment immunity requirements assessment and measurement and analysis of power quality parameters is carried out .Power quality parameter deviations which results into malfunction /failure /degradation equipment performance are identified and cost effective solutions are proposed ..
Detailed power quality report with observations , recommendations , detailed specifications of power conditioning equipments with techno-commercial analysis are submitted .Presentation of report and addressing of queries of client team and support required during implementation is provided.
Voltage sag studies
Majority of industrial processes are integrated and automated using highly sensitive equipments and systems .Mal-function of sensitive equipments due to voltage sag/dip and short duration interruption is very common in India .Voltage sag/dip results into malfunction /tripping of sensitive equipment resulting into complete process shutdown leading to long process recovery time , cascaded failures and huge financial loss .Voltage sag studies and cost effective solution is highly specialized area in power quality which demands experts with in-depth knowledge of power system and voltage quality .Voltage sag is multidimensional power quality problem having various characteristics such as magnitude , duration , point on wave initiation , point on wave recovery and phase angle jumps. Equipments used in industrial complex are sensitive to different voltage sag characteristics such as magnitude , duration , point on wave initiation and phase angle jumps. We carry out voltage sag studies as per IEEE standard 1346 to assess immunity of sensitive piece of equipments to short duration interruptions and voltage sags characteristics using voltage sag recorded events .Voltage sag event with specific characteristics challenging immunity of equipment are identified by mapping recorded voltage sag events on voltage tolerance curve of each sensitive equipment . Cost effective solution by parametric optimization and retrofit of voltage sag ride through devices are recommended. Energy stored in rotational and static elements is considered while sizing voltage sag ride through solutions. Voltage sag solutions are validated using EMTP software ETAP. Detailed action plan and specification of voltage sag ride through solutions are provided in report with techno-commercial analysis .
Increase in non linear equipments in industries and commercial organizations have resulted into increase in voltage and current harmonic distortion .Various ill effects of harmonics are a) Mal-fuction of equipments due to higher voltage distortion b) Increase in losses and heating due to higher voltage and current harmonic distortion c) Accelerated ageing and abrupt failures of equipments d) Increased Ground to neutral voltage .Harmonic amplification due to either series or parallel resonance is very common .We offer harmonic measurement and analysis studies using high end power quality analyzer as per IEEE 519-2014 .Detailed harmonic measurement and analysis is carried out to :
• Measure/determine Voltage and current harmonic distortion.
• Identify major current harmonic sources.
• Check harmonic amplification either due to series or parallel resonance
• Harmonic compliance evaluation at PCC as per IEEE 519-2014 Standard.
• Sizing, specifications of Active filters /Hybrid filters with techno-commercial analysis.
We work out highly cost-effective harmonic solution by optimization of filter size taking into consideration all factors responsible for higher current harmonic distortion.
Reactive Power studies
Reactive power is essential to create magnetic field which is key in electromechanical energy conversion devices such as induction motor .Reactive power requirement of induction motors is governed by loading and Applied Voltage .Operation of induction motor in saturation portion of B-H curve results into increased reactive power requirement .Implementation of KVAh billing in many states of India resulted into increased Electricity bills due to inadequate reactive power compensation .Majority of reactive power solutions offered are only focusing on Billing benefits .Adequate reactive power compensation systems meeting reactive power compensation on real time basis avails maximum energy cost reduction by:
• Optimization of difference between KVAh and KWH by reduction of lagging and leading RKVAh units.
• Reduction in transformer loading, losses.
• Reduction in cable and switch gear losses.
• Reduction in maintenance requirement and breakdowns
• Extension of life of equipment and infrastructure
Reactive power requirement of load is broadly categorized into a) Base load reactive power requirement b) Fluctuating load reactive power requirement. We carry out detailed reactive power studies taking into consideration following factors by power quality monitoring for 24 Hours at key locations in industrial and commercial facilities.
a) Base load reactive power variation profile
b) Fluctuating reactive power requirement,
c) Conduction of harmonic resonance study
d) Voltage profile study
e) Detailed study and assessment of existing reactive power compensation systems
f) Current harmonic spectrum to study frequency behavior.
Cost effective Solutions are sized based on:
a) RMS Voltage profile optimization
b) Sizing of stepped compensation to meet base load reactive power need with step sizing and number of steps based on reactive power profile.
c) Sizing of step less reactive power compensation devices such as AHF, Static VAR generator, STATCOM to meet only fluctuating reactive power compensation need to optimize size and cost
d) Identification of aged capacitors of steps, performance of detuned reactors, possibility of use of components of plain APFC based on tuning factor, voltage profile of bus and rated voltage of capacitors
Techno-commercial analysis of all benefits of adequate reactive power compensation are envaulted using EMTP software ETAP.
Impulsive and oscillatory transients cause sudden / pre-mature failure due to accelerated ageing of electrical /electronic equipments. Detailed transient and switching studies are key to design and provide adequate transient protection in co-ordinated manner. Selection, sizing and correct installation of TVSS and Lightening arrestors helps to provide cost effective adequate protection of equipments against transients.
We carry out transient and switching studies by power quality monitoring using High end power quality analyzers having sampling frequency in MHz to capture all range of transients. Detailed Electrical system studies with existing provided transient protection are carried out by PQ measurement and EATP software. Detailed report with adequate transient protection scheme is submitted.
Grounding /Earthing Studies
Grounding /earthing is required to be designed in industrial /commercial complex to meet following objectives
• Adequate personnel protection: Equipment Grounding
• System safety and security: Neutral grounding or system grounding.
• Safety of operating personnel in substation: Substation Grounding as per IEEE Standard 80
• Grounding of sensitive Electronic Equipments : IEEE standard 1100
• Grounding of Lightning and transient Protective equipment’s
Majority of problems faced by industries are related with wiring and grounding.
Best and adequate grounding system needs to offer:
• Very low resistance path of adequate size to power frequency in spite of seasonal variations
• Very low impedance path of adequate size to Transient Frequencies in spite of seasonal variations
• No ground loops.
• Shortest path to transients.
• Noise confinement /containment
We carry out detailed grounding /earthing system assessment /audit by use of state of art equipment as per various applicable IEEE standards, IS3043 to identify inadequacies in wiring and grounding system, identification of ground loops, stray current paths, reasons of higher neutral to earth voltage. Detailed report with recommendations of highly cost-effective solutions is submitted.
Diagnosis of Critical Electrical and Electronics Equipments
Breakdown of Electrical and Electronic Equipments are broadly categorized into two category a) Open ended breakdown b) Closed breakdowns .In case of closed breakdown exact root cause gets analyzed by why why analysis by maintenance team and corrective action is taken .Such kind of breakdowns gets closed .There are variety of breakdowns whose exact root cause is not identified to provide required specific solution keeps on repeating on random/regular basis .Open breakdown and associated losses is key concern to industrial and commercial organization .Critical breakdown analysis to identify exact root cause becomes complex due to variety of factors responsible for initiation of open ended breakdowns. Various reasons for critical breakdowns are a) Incompatibility or immunity issues between Equipment and Electrical Environment b) Wiring Problem c) Grounding Problems d) Transients e) Other EMC issues.
We carry out root cause analysis of critical failures with cost effective guaranteed solutions by using state of art high end power quality and grounding assessment equipment and highly experienced domain experts. We have provided solutions to close critical failures of various organizations in highly cost-effective manner. We offer services till closing of open-ended critical breakdowns.
Performance Evaluation of Power Conditioning Equipment’s
Selection and installation of right power quality conditioning equipment is key to resolve various power quality issues related with immunity (Voltage quality) and emission ( Current quality) .Our team of power quality renowned domain expert using state of art power quality analyzer carry out third party performance evaluation and validation of power conditioning equipments such as AHF, Static VAR generators, STATCOM, static and rotary UPS , Dip proof inverter .
Large scale wind and Solar PV plant Power quality compliance as per CEA guidelines, IEEE and IEC standards.
Power quality compliance of large scale grid connected wind farm and solar PV plants is statutory requirement as per CEA guidelines , IEEE 519-2014 and IEC 61000 .Such compliance studies need high end power analyzer having capability to carry out measurement of DC component , current and voltage harmonic distortion strictly as per revised IEEE 519-2014 standard and Pst , Plt as per IEC 61000 .We carry out detailed power quality measurement and analysis , carry out evaluation strictly as per IEEE and IEC mentioned standard to submit compliance report asked by grid operators .
Loss evaluation and performance assessment of grid connected large scale wind farms /Solar PV plants
Distribution and transmission losses of large scale wind farm is one of the key parameter .During low wind period transmission system losses due to reactive power generation by line capacitance becomes major concern .Failure of Electronic components /tripping of Wind Energy converter during grid disturbance are major problems faced by PMSM type wind Energy converter .Quantification of line losses , contributing parameters and optimization is required to meet client performance as per contract ..Measurement of DC cable loss between string to inverter and AC cable losses between inverter to ACDB , ACDB to feeding point and validation with performance contract in case of large scale ground mounted solar PV plant is mandatory requirement from client .
We offer and carry out detailed loss evaluation, performance evaluation, failure analysis studies in large scale wind farm and solar PV plants by involving domain experts and High accuracy power quality analyzer with AC as well as DC parameter measurement facility suitable for time synchronized auto simultaneous power quality measurement and analysis.
Substation Ground Grid assessment
Assessment of ground grid as per IEEE Standard 81 of existing more than 10-year-old 132KV /220KV/400KV substations is essential to ensure safety criteria as per IEEE standard 80. We carry out substation ground grid assessment by using high end equipment as per IEEE standard 81. Measurement of step potential is carried out by off grid frequency current injection method as per IEEE standard 81.
Objectives of substation ground grid assessment are:
• Soil resistivity measurement by wenner method.
• Measurement of earth resistance of pit by Fall of potential Method
• Measurement of step potential by off grid high frequency current injection method.
• Comparison of measured step and touch potential with allowed safe potential